Lottery is a way of distributing money or prizes among a group of people by chance, usually through a drawing. The practice has a long history, spanning centuries. Lotteries were used in the Old Testament to divide land, in the Roman Empire to give away slaves and property, and in the early United States to fund public projects like bridges and town fortifications. They were also a favorite form of collecting “voluntary taxes,” which helped build Harvard, Yale, Dartmouth, Union and Brown.
The modern lottery arose during the post-World War II period, when many states were seeking ways to expand their array of services without imposing particularly onerous taxes on middle and lower classes. A few states experimented with state-sponsored gambling, and in 1964 New Hampshire introduced a lottery, followed by two more states in 1966. Since then, lottery participation has expanded rapidly. Today, 37 states and the District of Columbia have lotteries.
State lotteries are widely regarded as a safe, inexpensive source of revenue. They typically begin operations by legitimizing their monopoly through state legislation; establish a publicly run agency or corporation to administer the lottery; begin with a modest number of relatively simple games; and, under constant pressure for additional revenues, progressively expand in size and complexity, adding more and more games.
While there are a variety of factors that influence people’s decisions to play, some of the most important are the messages they receive about the lottery. In addition to promoting its games, the lottery sends the message that it is okay to gamble; that gambling is not a vice, but merely a “civic duty.” In this context, state lotteries are an important part of society’s attempt to create the appearance of social mobility in an age of inequality and limited opportunities.
Lotteries have become an integral part of American life, and they are often defended on the grounds that they are an effective way to raise funds for government projects. This argument has never been especially persuasive, but it has helped to dispel long-standing ethical objections to state gambling. It has also provided cover for those who believe that, since people are going to gamble anyway, the state might as well collect some of the profits.
The truth is that most people do not enter the lottery with the intention of winning, and they are often not aware of the odds against them. Even so, there is an ugly underbelly to the exercise that can give players a sense of entitlement and self-importance. For example, some players develop quote-unquote “systems” — based entirely on irrational gambling behavior — about what numbers to buy and where and when to buy them; others have been conditioned by advertising to believe that they have a special skill in picking the right combination. Despite these ills, there is no doubt that the lottery remains a popular and profitable enterprise. Its success suggests that a large and growing segment of the population has developed a propensity to gamble, and is willing to take the risk that they might win.